Велики рат Србија у Великом рату

Дан примирја 1918

Краљевина Србија је као победник дочекала дуго ишчекивано примирје у Првом светском рату 1918. године . – „Дан примирја„,  потписаном у железничком вагону  у Француском региону Пикарди,  Компијењ код Париза .

 

Дан када је потписан споразум о прекиду непријатељстава 11 новембар 1918. године, у Првом светском рату између савезника и Немачке назива се „Дан примирја“  а у свету се још назива и Armistice Day, Remembrance Day,  Anzac Day или Veterans Day и тај дан се слави као државни празник . Овај споразум је водио коначном исходу рата и потписивању  Версајског уговора.

 

У Србији се овај Дан примирја обележава од 2012. године и главни мотив за амблем овог празника користи се цвет Наталијине рамонде, угрожена врста у Србији. Овај цвет је у ботаници познат и као цвет феникс.

Осим цвета у амблему се појављује и мотив траке Албанске споменице. Овај  амблем се носи на реверу у недељи која претходи празнику, као и на сам дан празника као сећање на храбре ратнике тога времена.

Дан примирја

У већини земаља, пре свега земљама Комонвелта,  као амблем се користи црвени цвет мака.

Дуго времена није било заставе Србије у железничком вагону у Компијењу. Основни разлог томе је што  државе Антанте нису дозвољавале да се ту истакне југословенска , а нарочито не комунистичка застава с петокраком. Јер  су победници у Великом рату били Срби а не југословени. Тек 2009. године застава Србије је враћена на своје место, међу победнике.

Застава Србије на вагону у ком је потисана капитулација Немачке 1918 године

Застава Србије на вагону у ком је потисана капитулација Немачке 1918 године

 

Потписивање примирја уследило је након Немачке револуције – „Новембарска револуција„, када је дошло до промена у самом врху Немачке државе.

Након више месечне дипломатске иницијативе и кад су званичници Немачке коначно  пристали на потписивање  тешких услова капитулације, које су им савезници од самог почетка постављали, уследило је потписивање примирја.

Дан примирја

Armistice-Day-NYTimes-Page1-11-11-1918

Насловна страна Њу Јорк Тајмса од 11 Новембра 1918. године

Потписивање је 5 сати и 10 минута ујутру 11. новембра у железничком вагону француског маршала Фердинанда Фоша у шуми Компијењ. Енглески адмирал Рослин Уимис и  главни командант савезничких снага Фединанд Фош примили су немачку делегацију, на челу са генерал-мајором Детлефом вон Винтерфелдом на потписивање примирја. Примирје је ступило на снагу у 11 часова.

Укупно је било 35 услова која су Немци морали да испуне. Али ових осам се сматрају за кључне услови примирја :

  • Престанак непријатељстава у року од шест сати од потписивања примирја, односно 11. новембар у 11 часова.
  • Одмах почети и завршити  у року од две недеље за  повлачење свих немачких трупа из Француске, Белгије, Луксембурга и Алзас-Лорен.
  • Накнадно уклањање свих немачких трупа које се налазе  на западној страни Рајне, плус 30 км (19 км) у радиусу  на десној страни Рајне у градовима Маинц, Кобленц и Келну са  окупацијом која би уследила од стране савезничких и америчких трупа.
  • Евакуација свих немачких снага на Источном фронту у Немачку  – из Турске, Аустро-Угарске и Румуније, на положаје од 1. августа 1914. године. И уклањање трупа из Русије онда када савезници закључе да је „прави тренутак“.
  • Одбацивање споразума о Брест-Литовск са Русијом и одрицање од мировног уговора потписаном у Букурешту са Румунијом.
  • Поморска блокада Немачка УК флоте остаје на снази.
  • Предаја свих  подморница и других савремених ратних бродова Немачке.
  • Предаја борбених оруђа, оружја и материјала ( у добром стању) и то: 5000 топова, 25.000 митраљеза, 3000 „лансера мина“ (Minenwerfer ) немачки топови кратког домета, који су служили за  немачкој инжињерији за уништавање бункера, ограде од бодљикаве жице и свега онога што дугометна артиљерија ниј могла да уништи, 1700  авиона, 5.000 локомотива и 150.000 аутомобила.

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